LVI EXTINCTION OF THE CALIPHATE 167 statesman, he would surely have been able to organize a force capable of defeating the Mongols, and would thereby have prevented the sack of Baghdad. As it was, he is remembered in history as a dazzling meteor, perhaps a prototype of Charles XII. of Sweden, The Mongol Campaigns in Asia Minor and Syria.— Chormaghun, realizing that Jalal-u-Din was not in a position to offer any organized resistance, ravaged Mesopo- tamia, Kurdistan, Azerbaijan, Armenia, and Georgia, and committed atrocities similar to those already described. Ibn-ul-Athir states that the panic which prevailed made the peasantry so cowardly that on one occasion a Mongol who wished to kill a man, but was unarmed, told him to lie down and await his return with a sword, and this the unnerved victim actually did. As will be seen later, in the eighteenth century the Afghans were able to treat the citizens of Isfahan in the same manner, they too being unable to move from fear. The division commanded at first by Chormaghun, and afterwards by Baydu, ravaged the provinces to the west of Persia during the next twenty years, their cavalry raids extending as far as Aleppo, and we learn from Matthew Paris1 that the Christian Prince of Antioch and other Christian lords paid them tribute. The Kutlugh Khans of Kerman, A.H. 619-703 (1222- 1303).—As mentioned in Chapter LIIL, Fars and Luristan were governed by independent princes termed Atabeg, and escaped the Mongol terror by politic submission. "We now turn to the remaining province of Kerman. Although like Fars its remoteness saved it from the Mongols, it had, as already related, been devastated again and again by the ferocious Ghuzz. The Ik or Shabancara tribe next gained possession of the province for a short time, but in A.H. 600 (1203) it was seized by an army from Fars. Shortly after the exhausted country had begun to recover under the ruler sent by the Atabeg of Fars, a new power appeared on the scene in the person of Khoja Razi-u-Din Zuzani with an army from Khiva which destroyed everything that the other armies had 1 Pp. 876 and 937.